Ricciardi et al. (2010)

General information

Amphiprion ocellarisThis paper describes the structure of local anemonefish-anemone networks across the Manado region of Sulawesi, Indonesia, a marine high diversity hot-spot where 7 species of anemonefish (Pomacentridae, Amphiprioniae) were described living symbiotically with 9 sea anemone species (Stichodactylidade and Actiniidae). Each fish species had a preferred anemone host. 

No correlation was found between species richness of anemones and anemonefish across several sites, but all anemones contained at least one fish individual, and there was a strong positive correlation between the number of individual anemonefish and anemones. 

The NODF algorithm indicated that at both local and regional scales the interactions are not significantly nested. The authors concluded that a combination of local conditions with competition forces species that regionally are more generalist to become more specialist.     

Data type and methodological remarks

Binary matrices describing anemonefish and anemone species interactions in 16 sampling sites of the Manado region. The data is based in field records from 233 anemones and 772 anemonefish individuals observed during 45-60 min SCUBA dives at depth between 1 and 40 m. Sampling sites were chosen trying to include the widest ranges of habitats (vertical slopes, patch reefs, and sandy bottom). 


Ricciardi, F., M. Boyer & J. Ollerton (2010). Assemblage and interaction structure of the anemonefish-anemone mutualism across the Manado region of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 87: 333-347. 

Data files

Excel file: click here to download a single data sheet including binary matrices for anemonefish-anemone interactions in 16 sites of the Manado region. 

Quantitative data are also available on request to Francesco Ricciardi - francesco.ric@gmail.com

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